ENDOG: one of the most popular softwares for genealogical analysis
The program ENDOG has become one of the most popular software tools for genealogical analyses. It includes not only computation of classical parameters in population genetics but also new parameters based on computation of individual increase of inbreeding or co-ancestry.
Inbreeding per Generation submenu screen
ENDOG allows you to conduct several demographic and genetic analyses including:
- Individual inbreeding and average relatedness coefficients
- Effective population size
- Parameters characterizing the concentration of both gene and individuals origin, such as the effective number of founders and ancestors, the effective number of founder herds, etc
- F-statistics and paired genetic distances for each subpopulation under study
- Descriptors of the genetic importance of herds in a population
- Generation intervals
The program helps breeders and researchers to monitor changes in genetic variability and population structure, with limited costs from preparing datasets.
The current version of ENDOG calculates effective population size following various methodologies including regression approaches, and in particular calculation from individual increase in inbreeding and modified to account for avoidance of self-fertilization.
ENDOG Individual Pedigree submenu screen
Highlights of the ENDOG program
Why has ENDOG become a popular software for scientists and breeders?
Using ENDOG for your genetic analyses allows you to fit your data to real-world populations. It is specifically designed for analyzing diploid populations in which selfing is not possible.
It allows you to compute reliable genetic parameters, particularly effective population sizes even when pedigrees are shallow (have accumulated, on average three, or more generations). The authors have also made available a version of the program in which selfing is possible to allow plant breeders to carry out genealogical analyses.
What about ENDOG quality: availability, usability and flexibility?
- Free software: ENDOG is a freely available software. You can download here the latest version 4.8 (10 November 2010, in English), an additional file for the Selfing Version (28 September 2011), and Endog 4.0 (15 November 2006, in Spanish).
- Intuitive: Users can upload bulk pedigree data with a limited need for formatting. ENDOG provides tools to help users check for errors. Interface, Access Tables and .txt files generated by ENDOG are user-friendly and self-informative.
- Software documentation: The ENDOG users’ guide provides information on the methods implemented in the software, but also gives tips to help any users trying out the software for the first time via the ENDOG interface. In addition, the authors are known to be very responsive to users’ questions.
- A compiled version of ENDOG is available for the Microsoft Windows environment only.
- Tested in several studies: The ENDOG program has been cited 191 times in papers indexed in the Web of Knowledge.
ENDOG Founders submenu screen
About the author:
Dr. Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, DVM, graduated from the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid) in Spain at the School of Veterinary Medicine in 1987, and completed a post-graduate degree at the same University in 1991. He also completed a degree in computer engineering at the UNED (National University of Distance Education) in Spain, with a specialization in Animal Breeding in 1989.
He is currently a Full Professor at the Department of Animal Production at the UCM, and the Director of the UCM Consolidated Research Group MOSEVAR (Animal Selection and Genetic Evaluation Models). As of July 2017, he has 30 years of experience in the field of animal breeding, and has published approximately 200 research papers, 91 of which are published in journals appearing in JCR (Journal Citation Reports). He has worked in genetic evaluation in multiple species including many breeds of cattle, sheep, mice, alpacas and horses.
Felix Goyache and Isabel Cervantes are co-authors.
(Gutiérrez and Goyache, 2005) A note on ENDOG: a computer program for analysing pedigree information. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics.